The chilly temperatures skilled within the week of April 13-17 induced freeze damage to the 2020 wheat crop at various levels. The extent of freeze harm relies on the area within the state, primarily as a result of the wheat in several areas was at distinct progress levels (with various ranges of susceptibility to chilly harm) and in addition as a result of the totally different areas recorded minimal temperatures starting from eight to over 30 levels F. Inside a given area, elements that impacted the extent of freeze harm included cropping system (which affected residue cowl and sowing date), wheat selection choice, and place within the panorama.
North central Kansas
The area encompassing Republic, Smith, Phillips, and Rooks counties confirmed a various, however appreciable, quantity of freeze harm to the wheat crop. Usually, the harm was extra obvious within the western portion of this area; though some fields in Republic county additionally confirmed appreciable harm. Fields that have been planted on the optimum time resembling these after a protracted fallow interval have been displaying much less leaf harm, however numerous main heads destroyed by the freeze. Many instances, as many as 40 to 60% of the first heads have been misplaced. Whereas secondary heads have been principally nonetheless alive, the crop wants moisture quickly to assist with restoration potential. On this area, freeze harm was accentuated by dry topsoil circumstances, which at present offers the crops a desiccated look. For these fields that have been sown late, normally after a soybean crop on this area, the mixture of freeze and dry topsoil induced appreciable dry again of leaves and tillers, with as many as half or two thirds of the tillers killed by the freeze occasion.
Central and west central Kansas
Fields within the area between Saline and Ellis counties confirmed, once more, various levels of freeze harm, with not less than the identical however doubtlessly extra freeze harm than within the north central area. The developments noticed within the north central area have been additionally true for this area (main tiller loss in early sown fields, extreme leaf and tiller harm to late-sown fields). Nevertheless, as a result of the wheat crop was additional alongside in growth on this area, it was at a larger threat for freeze harm. This area had barely extra soil moisture, which ought to assist the crop compensate for the potential yield loss by way of secondary tillers.
The wheat crop within the northwestern portion of Kansas was additionally affected by the freezing temperatures. The wheat crop was not as far alongside in growth relative to different areas of the state. With many fields both tillering or within the early jointing levels of progress on the time of the chilly temperatures. This space of the state skilled the coldest temperatures (usually much less 15 levels) and dry soil circumstances predisposed crops to damage. General, the harm was much less extreme within the Northwestern area than in central KS. however some areas in Thomas, Gove and Trego Counties possible skilled vital harm. In lots of instances, the severely broken fields turned yellow and finally brown because the tissue declined and desiccated this week. The wheat in these fields will possible produce new tillers to compensate for potential yield loss, however rain is required to assist the crop get well.
Wheat selection impact on potential for freeze harm
We additionally noticed a substantial distinction amongst varieties of their response to the current freeze occasions. It is very important observe that these variations don’t replicate a spread’s winterhardiness. As a substitute, they appear to be extra associated to when varieties have been launched from winter dormancy and began their spring progress. Varieties that started to develop early are displaying extra freeze harm than varieties that have been launched from dormancy later, no matter sowing date. Keep in mind that wheat’s tolerance to freezing temperatures is at its peak in the course of the winter, after which decreases because the crop begins its spring progress – thus, the additional away from the depths of the winter, the much less a given selection is ready to tolerate chilly temperatures. Normally, varieties that launched earlier from winter dormancy (for instance, WB4458, Paradise, TAM114, Zenda) have been displaying rather more freeze harm than varieties that have been launched later (for instance, WB Grainfied, Rock Star, LCS Chrome, Joe).
This text and data have been offered by Romulo Lollato, Extension Wheat and Forages Specialist and Erick DeWolf, Extension Wheat Pathologist.
Stacy Campbell is an Agriculture and Pure Assets agent within the Cottonwood District (which incorporates Barton and Ellis counties) for Okay-State Analysis and Extension. You may contact him by e-mail at email@example.com or calling 785-628-9430.
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